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Hipertensi atau tekanan darah tinggi adalah kondisi kronis di mana tekanan darah pada dinding arteri (pembuluh darah bersih) meningkat. Kondisi ini dikenal sebagai “pembunuh diam-diam” karena jarang memiliki gejala yang jelas. Satu-satunya cara mengetahui apakah Anda memiliki hipertensi adalah dengan mengukur tekanan darah.
Jika Anda belum memeriksa dan tidak tahu tekanan darah Anda, mintalah kepada dokter untuk memeriksanya. Semua orang dewasa sebaiknya memeriksa tekanan darah mereka setidaknya setiap lima tahun sekali.
Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) pada tahun 2013 menunjukkan bahwa penderita hipertensi yang berusia di atas 18 tahun mencapai 25,8 persen dari jumlah keseluruhan penduduk Indonesia. Dari angka tersebut, penderita hipretensi perempuan lebih banyak 6 persen dibanding laki-laki. Sedangkan yang terdiagnosis oleh tenaga kesehatan hanya mencapai sekitar 9,4 persen. Ini artinya masih banyak penderita hipertensi yang tidak terjangkau dan terdiagnosa oleh tenaga kesehatan dan tidak menjalani pengobatan sesuai anjuran tenaga kesehatan. Hal tersebut menyebabkan hipertensi sebagai salah satu penyebab kematian tertinggi di Indonesia.
Risiko Mengidap Hipertensi
Penyebab hipertensi belum bisa dipastikan pada lebih dari 90 persen kasus. Seiring bertambahnya usia, kemungkinan Anda untuk menderita hipertensi juga akan meningkat.
- Berusia di atas 65 tahun.
- Mengonsumsi banyak garam.
- Kelebihan berat badan.
- Memiliki keluarga dengan riwayat hipertensi.
- Kurang makan buah dan sayuran.
- Jarang berolahraga.
- Minum terlalu banyak kopi (atau minuman lain yang mengandung kafein).
- Terlalu banyak mengonsumsi minuman keras.
Risiko mengidap hipertensi dapat dikurangi dengan mengubah hal-hal di atas dan menerapkan gaya hidup yang lebih sehat. Pemeriksaan tekanan darah secara rutin juga bisa membantu diagnosis pada tahap awal. Diagnosis hipertensisedini mungkin akan meningkatkan kemungkinan untuk menurunkan tekanan darah ke taraf normal. Hal ini bisa dilakukan dengan mengubah gaya hidup menjadi lebih sehat tanpa perlu mengonsumsi obat.
Mengukur Tekanan Darah
Kekuatan darah dalam menekan dinding arteri ketika dipompa oleh jantung ke seluruh tubuh menentukan ukuran tekanan darah. Tekanan yang terlalu tinggi akan membebani arteri dan jantung Anda, sehingga pengidap hipertensi berpotensi mengalami serangan jantung, stroke, atau penyakit ginjal.
Pengukuran tekanan darah dalam takaran merkuri per milimeter (mmHG) dan dicatat dalam dua bilangan, yaitu tekanan sistolik dan diastolik.
Tekanan SISTOLIK adalah tekanan darah saat jantung berdetak memompa darah keluar.
Sedangkan Tekanan DIASTOLIK merupakan tekanan darah saat jantung tidak berkontraksi (fase relaksasi) . Saat ini darah yang baru saja dipompa keluar jantung (tekanan sistolik), berada di pembuluh arteri dan tekanan diastolik juga menunjukkan kekuatan dinding arteri menahan laju aliran darah.
Tekanan darah Anda 130 per 90 atau 130/90 mmHG, berarti Anda memiliki tekanan sistolik 130 mmHg dan tekanan diastolik 90 mmHg.
Angka normal tekanan darah adalah yang berada di bawah 120/80 mmHG.
Anda akan dianggap mengidap hipertensi atau tekanan darah tinggi jika hasil dari beberapa kali pemeriksaan, tekanan darah Anda tetap mencapai 140/90 mmHg atau lebih tinggi.
Pencegahan dan Pengobatan Hipertensi
Jika tekanan darah Anda tinggi, pantaulah dengan ketat sampai angka tersebut turun dan bisa dikendalikan dengan baik. Dokter biasanya menyarankan perubahan pada gaya hidup yang termasuk dalam pengobatan untuk hipertensi sekaligus pencegahannya.
- Langkah tersebut bisa diterapkan melalui :
- Mengonsumsi makanan sehat.
- Mengurangi konsumsi garam dan kafein.
- Berhenti merokok.
- Berolahraga secara teratur.
- Menurunkan berat badan, jika diperlukan.
- Mengurangi konsumsi minuman keras.
Mencegah hipertensi lebih mudah dan murah dibandingkan dengan pengobatan. Karena itu, pencegahan sebaiknya dilakukan seawal mungkin. Jika didiamkan terlalu lama, hipertensi bisa memicu terjadinya komplikasi yang bahkan bisa mengancam jiwa pengidapnya.
Dari Penjelasan tersebut diatas minum air tidak kalah pentingnya, minumlah air yang memiliki karakteristik air sehat berenergi : pH basa, mengandung antioxidant dan ikatan molekul kecil.
Dalam buku " Your body many cries for water "
Hal 38 - 41 :
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
"Physicians think they are doing something for you by labeling -what you have as a disease." Immanuel Kant
High blood pressure (essential hypertension) is the result of an adaptive process to a gross body water deficiency.
The vessels of the body have been designed to cope with the fluctuation of their blood volume and tissue requirements by opening and closing different vessels. When the total fluid volume in the body is decreased, the main vessels also have to decrease their aperture (close their lumen); otherwise there would not be enough fluid to fill all the space allocated to blood volume in the design of that particular body. Failing a capacity adjustment to the "water volume" by the blood vessels, gases would separate from the blood and fill the space/causing "gas locks." This property of lumen regulation for fluid circulation is a most advanced design within the principle of hydraulics and after which the blood circulation of the body is modeled.
Shunting of blood circulations a normal routine. When we eat, most of the circulation is directed into the intestinal tract by closing some capillary circulation elsewhere. When we eat, more capillaries are opened in the gastrointestinal tract and fewer are open in the major muscle systems. Only areas where activity places a more urgent demand on the circulatory systems will be kept fully open for the passage of blood. In other words, it is the blood-holding capacity of the capillary bed that determines the direction and rate of flow to any site at a given time.
This process is naturally designed to cope with any priority work without the burden of maintaining an excess fluid volume in the body. When the act of digestion has taken place and less blood is needed in the gastrointestinal region, circulation to other areas will open more easily. In a most indirect way, this is why we feel less active immediately after a meal and ready for action after some time has passed.
In short, there is a mechanism for establishment of priority for circulating blood to any given area—some capillaries open and some others close. The order is predetermined according to a scale of importance of function. The brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, and glands take priority over muscles, bones, and skin in blood distribution—unless a different priority is programmed into the system. This will happen if a continued demand on any part of the body will influence the extent of blood circulation to the area, such as muscle development through regular exercise.
WATER SHORTAGE: POTENTIALS FOR HYPERTENSION
When we do not drink enough water to serve all the needs of the body, some cells become dehydrated and lose some of their water to the circulation. Capillary beds in some areas will have to close so that some of the slack in capacity is adjusted for. In water shortage and body drought, 66 percent is taken from the water volume normally held inside the cells; 26 percent is taken from the volume held outside the cells; and 8 percent is taken from blood volume (see Figure 13). There is no alternative for the blood vessels other than closing their lumen to cope with the loss in blood volume. The process begins by closing some capillaries in less-active areas. Otherwise, where will the balance come from to keep these capillaries open? The deficient quantity must come either from outside or be taken from another part of the body!
It is the extent of capillary bed activity throughout the body that will ultimately determine the volume of circulating blood. The more the muscles are exercised, the more their capillaries will open and hold a greater volume of blood within the circulation reserves. This is the reason why exercise is a most important component for physiological adjustments in those suffering from hypertension. This is one aspect to the physiology of hypertension. The capillary bed must remain open and full and offer no resistance to blood circulation. When the capillary bed is closed and offers resistance, only an increased force behind the circulating blood will ensure the passage of some fluids through the system.
Another reason why the capillary bed may become selectively dosed is shortage of water in the body. Basically, water we drink will ultimately have to get into the cells—water regulates the volume of a cell from inside. Salt regulates the amount of water that is held outside the cells—the ocean around the cell There is a very delicate balancing process in the design of the body in the way it maintains its composition of blood at the expense of fluctuating the water content in some cells of the body. When there is a shortage of water, some cells will go without
a portion of their normal needs and some others will get a predetermined rationed amount to maintain function (as it was explained, the mechanism involves water filtration through the cell membrane). However, blood will normally retain the consistency of its composition. It must do so to keep the normal composition of elements reaching the vital centers.
This is where the "solutes paradigm" is inadequate and goes wrong. It bases all assessments and evaluations of body functions on the solids content of blood. It does not recognize the comparative dehydration of some other parts of the body. All blood tests can appear normal d yet the small capillaries of the heart and the brain may be closed and cause some of the cells of these organs a gradual damage from increasing dehydration over a long period of
time. When you read the section on cholesterol formation, this statement will become more clear. When we lose thirst sensation (or do not recognize the other signals of dehydration) and drink less water than the daily requirement, the shutting down of some vascular beds is the only natural alternative to keep the rest of the blood vessels full. The question is, how long can we go on like this? The answer is, long enough to ultimately become very ill and die. Unless we get wise to the paradigm shift and professionally and generally begin to recognize the problems associated with water metabolism disturbance in the human body and its variety of thirst
signals, chronic dehydration will continue to take its toll on both our bodies and our society.
Essential hypertension should primarily be treated with an increase in daily water intake. The present way of treating hypertension is wrong to the point of scientific absurdity. The body is trying to retain its water volume, and we say to the design of nature in us: "No, you do not understand—you must take diuretics and get rid of water!!"
It so happens, if we do not drink sufficient water, the only other way the body has to secure water is through the mechanism of keeping sodium in the body. The RA system is directly involved.
Only when sodium is retained will water remain in the extra cellular fluid compartment. From this compartment, through the mechanism of showerhead production, water will be forced into some of the cells with "priority" status. Thus, keeping sodium in the body is a last resort way of retaining some water for its "shower-head" filtered use.
There is a sensitivity of design attached to sodium retention in the body. To assume this to be the cause of hypertension is inaccurate and stems from insufficient knowledge of the water regulatory mechanisms in the human body. When diuretics are given to get rid of the sodium, the body becomes more dehydrated. The "dry mouth" level of dehydration is reached and some water is taken to compensate.
The use of diuretics maintain the body at an expanding level of deficit water management. They do not cure hypertension; they make the body more determined for salt and water absorption—however, never enough to correct the problem. That is why, after a while, diuretics
are not enough and supplemental medications will be forced on the patient.
Another problem in assessment of hypertension is its means of measurement. Anxiety associated with having hypertension will automatically affect the person at examination time. Readings of the instruments may not reflect the true, natural, and normal blood pressure. An inexperienced or hasty medical practitioner, more in fear of litigation than mindful of accuracy of judgment, might assume the patient to have hypertension, whereas the person might only have an instant of "clinic anxiety," thus causing a higher reading of the instrument. One other very
important but less-known problem with the mechanism of reading blood pressure is the process of inflating the cuff well above the systolic reading, and then letting the air out until the pulse is heard.
Every large (and possibly small) artery has a companion nerve that is there to monitor the flow of blood through the vessel. With the loss of pressure beyond the cuff that is now inflated to very high levels, the process of "pressure" opening of the obstruction in the arteries will be triggered. By the time the pressure in the cuff is lowered to read the pulsation level, the recording of an artificially induced higher blood pressure will become unavoidable. Unfortunately, the measurement of hypertension is so arbitrary (and based on the diastolic level) that in this litigious society a minor error in assessment may label a person hypertensive. This is when all the "fun and games" begin!
Water by itself is the best natural diuretic. If the persons who have hypertension, and produce adequate urine, increase their daily water intake, they will not need to take any diuretics. If prolonged "hypertension-producing dehydration" has also caused heart failure complications, water intake should be increased gradually.
In this way, one makes sure that fluid collection in the body is not excessive and unmanageable.
The mechanism of sodium retention in these people is in an "overdrive" mode. When water intake is increased gradually and more urine is being produced, the edema fluid ("swelling") that is full of toxic substances will be flushed out, and the heart will regain its strength. The following letters are presented here with the kind permission of their authors, who wished to share their welcome experiences with the readers of this book.
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